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Economic Linkages Between the WIC Program and the Farm Sector

In fiscal 2008, the $4.6 billion of food purchased with vouchers from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) generated $1.3 billion in farm revenue. Because WIC participants would have purchased some of these foods with their own money in the absence of the program, the net addition to farm revenue from WIC is estimated at $331 million and the net increase in full-time-equivalent farm jobs at 2,640. The study uses an Input-Output Multiplier Model to derive these estimates and assumes that recent revisions in the WIC food packages were implemented in all States in fiscal 2008.

The Relationship Between Food Insecurity, Produce Intake and Behaviors, Hemoglobin Levels, BMI, and Health Status Among Women Participating in the West Virginia WIC and WIC FMNP Programs

In the Mid-Ohio Valley Region of West Virginia, food insecure women in the West Virginia WIC program had a greater risk of depression, higher food pantry use, lower rates of reliable transportation to obtain food, and lower use of extra methods to obtain food such as hunting and fishing in comparison to their food secure counterparts in the WIC program. Women who did not participate in the West Virginia WIC FMNP program had lower produce intake related behaviors, including perceived control, enabling domain, and self-efficacy than those that did.

A randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers’ market fruit and vegetable purchases and consumption among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): rationale and design of the WIC Fresh Start program

WFS participants consumed more fruit (2.7 cups/day) but less vegetables (1.4 cups/day) than did women nationwide (1.1 and 1.4 cups/day, respectively; P <0.01). Although participants consumed recommended amounts of fruit, their vegetable intake was below recommended levels.