Measuring Access to Healthful, Affordable Food in American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Areas
By Kaufman P, Dicken C, Williams R
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations have about twice the rate of nutrition-related health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, as non-Hispanic White Americans. The authors found likely sources of healthful, affordable food to be limited in many tribal areas, a factor that may influence diet and food choices. Access to large grocery stores and supermarkets—which sell food needed for a healthy diet—varied by tribal area. AIAN tribal area populations are mostly rural, unlike the national population. Spatial analysis revealed that 25.6 percent of individuals living in tribal areas were within 1 mile of a supermarket—defined as walking distance— compared with 58.8 percent of all Americans. The largest share of AIAN tribal area populations are between 1 and 10 miles from a supermarket, defined as driving distance. Among the 6 percent of tribal area households without vehicles, more than two-thirds lived more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket. Measures of access are also reported for supermarkets authorized for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and outlets used by the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations.
Errata: On April 9, 2015, the estimate for average distance from a grocery for all tribal areas in Table 2 on page 13 was corrected to fix a calculation error. References to the number in the text on pages 13-16 were updated to reference the revised number. The references to the estimate for population share and population percentiles for all ANVSA individuals in Table 3 on page 17 was also corrected.
This research was funded by the USDA Economic Research Service.
January 18, 2018
Kaufman P, Dicken C, Williams R (2014) Measuring Access to Healthful, Affordable Food in American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Areas, EIB-131. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Available online: https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/43905/49690_eib131_errata.pdf?v=42103