WIC Research, Policy and Practice Hub WIC Research, Policy and Practice Hub

Community Clinical Linkages

How WIC Positively Impacts Local Communities

“For over forty years, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) has been strengthening local communities across America. In urban, rural and suburban areas, WIC’s time-limited […]

Workplace Learning for the Public Good: Implementation of a Standardized, Competency-Based Curriculum in Texas WIC

The researchers analyzed participants; experiences after the implementation of a workplace learning program in the Texas WIC Program. The findings identified several best practices, including the importance of planning at multiple organizational levels, candidate selection, flexible implementation design, managerial buy-in, preceptor knowledge and availability, open communication, and the establishment of clear expectations and timelines.

A Longitudinal Study of Dental Caries Risk Among Very Young Low-SES Children

Early childhood caries (ECC) is a challenging public health problem, both in the US and elsewhere. Unfortunately, data relating to very young children's risk factors are scarce. This study assessed baseline risk factors for 18-month caries prevalence, in conjunction with a longitudinal study of high-risk children. Results suggested that early colonization by mutans streptocci (MS) and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are significant predictors of ECC in high-risk populations.

The Public Health Nutrition Workforce and its Future Challenges: the US Experience

The objectives of the study were to describe the US public health nutrition workforce and its future social, biological, and fiscal challenges. It focused on the nutrition personnel working in governmental health agencies. Results showed that the US Department of Agriculture funds 81.7% of full-time-equivalent positions, primarily through the WIC Program. Of those personnel working in WIC, 45% have at least 10 years of experience, compared with more than 65% of the non-WIC workforce. The future workforce will need to focus on increasing its diversity and cultural competence and likely will need to address retirement within leadership positions.

Postpartum Mothers’ Attitudes, Knowledge, and Trust Regarding Vaccination

The objective of this study was to examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. The study showed that although the majority of infants received vaccines, their mothers had concerns and would like to have received immunization information earlier. Mothers who are primiparous; have low family incomes, but do not qualify for the WIC Program; or are breastfeeding might need special attention to develop a trusting relationship regarding vaccinations.

An Assessment of the Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on WIC Program Coordination With Primary Care Services

Coordination between WIC and Medicaid has been an important component to ensuring that WIC clients have access to primary care services. This study examines how increased use of managed care in the Medicaid program had affected WIC Program coordination efforts. According to the study sample, 72% of state Medicaid agencies reported that Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to inform their members about WIC. About 43% of state WIC agencies sampled in the study had a formal agreement with a state Medicaid agency, generally revolving around data sharing, referrals, and provision of special metabolic infant formulas. The agreements often lacked specific details on how services should be coordinated, however. Some local WIC agencies and MCOs had implemented innovative approaches to coordination. These approaches included collocating Medicaid staff at WIC clinics, to help clients with enrollment; sharing information to promote targeted outreach efforts; helping clients identify providers and resources; and receiving funds from MCOs to cover WIC clients; transportation costs to attend WIC appointments.

A Status Report from 1996–2004: Are More Effective Immunization Interventions Being Used in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program?

Since 1998, the CDC has monitored the WIC/immunization linkages assessment and referral (with and without the more aggressive strategy of monthly voucher pickup, client outreach and tracking, and parental incentives) and three other immunization supporting activities (computerized systems to assess immunization status, collocation of WIC and immunization services, and coordination of WIC and immunization services). Through an annual survey of state immunization and WIC programs, the authors conducted a trend analysis for the years 1998 through 2004 to determine changes in the use and frequency of WIC/immunization linkage activities.