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Underimmunization in Chicago Children who Dropped Out of WIC

This retrospective cohort study determined whether children who remained active at WIC immunization-linked sites after their first birthday were more likely to be immunized by ages 19 months and 25 months than those who had dropped out. The study concluded that children who participated in WIC were more likely to be immunized, compared with children who had dropped out of WIC.

Racial/ethnic disparities in preschool immunizations: United States, 1996 – 2001

The authors analyzed current racial and ethnic differences in immunization coverage rates among US preschool children. During the 6-year study period, the immunization coverage gap between white and black children widened by an average of 1.1% each year, and the gap between white and Hispanic children widened by an average of 0.5% each year. The gap between white and Asian children narrowed by an average of 0.8% each year.

Factors Associated with Underimmunization at 3 Months of Age in Four Medically Underserved Areas

This study examines coverage rates and factors associated with underimmunization at 3 months of age in four medically underserved areas. Vaccination coverage levels at 3 months of age varied across sites: They were 82.4% in northern Manhattan, 70.5% in Detroit, 82.3% in San Diego, and 75.8% in rural Colorado. Among children who were not up to date, the majority (65.7% to 71.5%, per site) had not received vaccines because of missed opportunities.

Maternal Characteristics Associated with Vaccination of Young Children

The authors analyzed maternal characteristics associated with vaccination in US preschool children. Results showed that factors most strongly associated with undervaccination included mothers who were black; had less than a high school education; were divorced, separated, or widowed; had multiple children; were eligible for WIC, but not participating; or had incomes below 50% of the federal poverty level.

Improving the Health of Infants on Medicaid by Collocating Special Supplemental Nutrition Clinics With Managed Care Provider Sites

The study objective was to determine whether collocation of WIC clinics at managed care provider sites improved healthcare for infants enrolled in Medicaid and WIC. The findings revealed that compared with other infants, those who visited collocated WIC sites were either closer to their age-appropriate weight or had higher immunization rates when recertified by WIC staff after their first birthday.

Promoting Health in Early Childhood

Some programs and policies have failed to show consistent results. But the good news is that others are quite effective at improving early childhood health. The most successful include the (WIC), universal immunization, and high-quality, center-based early childhood care and education. Economic analyses reveal that these programs' benefits outweigh their costs, suggesting that public spending to support them is more than justified.