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Smoking Status and Stages of Change for Dietary Behaviors Among WIC Women

This study examines whether dietary attitudes and demographics differed, based on the smoking status among low-income women participating in a dietary intervention. Results indicated that relative to nonsmokers, current smokers reported significantly higher overall calories; higher percentages of calories from fat, sweets, and alcohol; and a lower percentage of calories from protein. Those who had never smoked and who received the dietary intervention evidenced the greatest dietary changes over time.

Changes in Maternal Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant WIC Participants in Rhode Island

The authors explored the relationship between the timing of entry into the WIC Program among pregnant women in Rhode Island and changes in maternal cigarette smoking (MCS) during pregnancy. Self-reports from smokers indicated that 9.5% quit smoking; 24.6% decreased MCS; 26.8% experienced no change; 33.5% increased MCS; and 5.6% attempted to quit MCS, but failed during pregnancy.

Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program

The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population