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Publication Date

January 1, 2012


Journal Article

Costs Related to Promoting Breastfeeding Among Urban Low‐Income Women

By Frick K, Pugh L, Milligan R


Objective: To describe the costs of providing support to breastfeeding low-income women and compares costs to cost offsets of the intervention.

Design: Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to promote breastfeeding among low-income women with full-term infants.

Setting: A university hospital and a community hospital in Baltimore, Maryland.

Participants: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) eligible breastfeeding women(N = 328) were randomized to usual care or the community health nurse/peer counselor intervention.

Methods: The researchers collected and described personnel and mileage costs over the entire duration of the intervention (24 weeks). Researchers also compared (using t tests) change in resources associated with breastfeeding including the number of clinic visits, hospital nights, emergency room visits, prescriptions, and formula feedings per day up to 12 weeks.

Results: The cost of the personnel and travel required for the intervention was $296 per woman. The use of medical care and number of formula feedings per day were similar for the intervention and usual care groups. When differences in use of medical care and formula feeding were statistically significant, the intervention group used fewer resources.

Conclusion: Support for breastfeeding by community health nurses and peer counselors is partially offset by reducing medical care utilization and formula feeding costs.

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Date Added
March 16, 2018

Frick K, Pugh L, Milligan R (2012) Costs Related to Promoting Breastfeeding Among Urban Low‐Income Women. Journal Of Obstetric Gynecologic And Neonatal Nursing: Vol. 41, Issue 1, pp. 144-150. Available online: https://www.jognn.org/article/S0884-2175(15)31029-7/fulltext